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1nc disadvantage 1nc buy America Disadvantage g-20 summit has created a shift away from protectionist legislation – countries are turning outwards towards trade

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1NC Buy America Disadvantage

G-20 summit has created a shift away from protectionist legislation – countries are turning outwards towards trade

PTI 6/20

(“Resist protectionism, keep markets open: G-20 tells nations” http://zeenews.india.com/business/news/2012-g-20-mexico-summit/resist-protectionism-keep-markets-open-g-20-tells-nations_54075.html)

Los Cabos: In order to boost global demand and achieve sustainable growth, the G-20 leaders have asked the member nations and other countries to resist protectionism and keep markets open. "Resisting protectionism and keeping markets open," said the Los Cabos Growth and Jobs Action Plan adopted at the 2-day summit here, which among others was attended by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. As the global economic risks and uncertainties have increased substantially, it said, "our collective focus now is to strengthen demand, growth, confidence and financial...We have agreed today on a globally coordinated economic plan to achieve those goals through our framework for strong, sustainable and balanced growth." Besides underlining the need for decisively dealing with the sovereign debt problem in the Eurozone countries, the Action Plan calls for "boosting demand and economic growth, and reducing persistently high and rising unemployment in many advanced economies, especially among young people". It also underlined the need for dealing effectively with spike in oil prices in wake of geopolitical risks in an environment of limited spare capacity and modest inventories. The priority, it added should be to ensure that emerging markets maintain a strong and sustainable growth path that contributes to the global recovery and quality job creation. Calling for "stronger actions" to promote growth and stability, the Action Plan said, "we need to intensify our efforts to reduce both internal and external imbalances" and address problems pertaining to high fiscal deficits. Efforts, it added, should be made to minimise risks and ensure proper functioning of our financial systems, supported by fiscal and monetary policy actions. In order to address near term risks, the Action Plan said the Euro Area members of the G-20 would be taking all necessary measures to safeguard the integrity and stability of the area, improve the functioning of financial markets. The United States, it said, will calibrate the pace of its fiscal consolidation by ensuring that its public finances are placed on a sustainable long-run path so that a sharp fiscal contraction in 2013 is avoided. The other developed countries will also be taking similar steps to promote growth in the larger interest of global recovery. Referring to the issue of exchange rate, the Action Plan reaffirmed the commitment of the G-20 leaders to "move more rapidly toward market-determined exchange rate systems and enhance exchange rate flexibility to reflect underlying fundamentals, avoid persistent exchange rate misalignments, and refrain from competitive devaluation of currencies". China, it said, was building on its commitment to gradually reduce the pace of reserve accumulation, and to allow market forces to play a larger role in determining movements of the RMB and to increase the transparency of its exchange rate policy. "We welcome China?s commitment to continue exchange rate regime reform," it added. Oil-exporting countries, the Plan said, "will continue to pursue productive public investment and encourage private investment, which will have positive regional and global spillover effects, while ensuring fiscal sustainability given the volatile nature of revenues." The other important components of the Action Plan include increased investment in infrastructure sector, labour reforms, stability of real estate sector and strengthening of social safety nets. The progress of the Plan to combat global problems will be reviewed at the St. Petersburg Summit in 2013.
Federal transportation investment in the United States requires contractors to abide by Buy American provisions – the plan prohibits contracting with foreign firms

Morton, 5-10

-’12 (Peter, “Buy America spectre rises again” Hamilton Spectator, lexis)

Canadian companies hoping to bid on the crumbling road and bridge system in the U.S. may find themselves behind yet another "Buy America" law that would prohibit them from bidding on any government-funded construction project even if it has the smallest amount of federal funding. U.S. Senator Sherrod Brown, a Democrat from the steel-producing State of Ohio, convinced the Senate to endorse a new and onerous Buy America regulation as part of a sweeping transportation funding bill called Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st century Act, or MAP-21. Brown's amendment, which was accepted by the Senate in March, would prohibit state governments from contracting outside the country if any part of the project receives U.S. government funding. Both the Senate and the House of Representatives are in complex negotiations to finalize the law, which is also known as the Surface Transportation Reauthorization Bill. "The proposed MAP Act includes provisions that represent a significant departure from existing 'Buy America' preferences," Amgad Shehata, chair of the Washington-based Canadian American Business Council, said in a letter to the Senate and the House conferees this week. "Specifically, if at least one contract for a project receives any federal funding under this act, then all contracts for a project, regardless of their funding source, would be subject to Buy America preferences," Shehata said. Canada and the U.S. have long butted heads on various Buy America laws dating as far back as 1933. The various Buy America provisions try to create U.S. jobs through restrictions on imported construction materials, mostly steel and iron. Canada thought it bought some peace in February 2010 when the two governments agreed on reciprocal bidding in each other's countries on infrastructure projects such as bridges and roads after President Barack Obama brought in a $787-billion economic stimulus bill.
Buy American requirements on transportation infrastructure trigger a trade war that causes global depression and undermines world trade

Oppenheimer

, Correspondent for the Miami Herald, ‘

9

(Andres, February 5, “Reject ‘Buy American’ clause or risk a trade war” Salt Lake City Tribune, lexis)

Forget about Iraq, the Middle East or searching for a new White House puppy. President Barack Obama's first key decision will be whether to support a "Buy American" clause. It is strongly supported by his Democratic Party and labor unions, but U.S. allies say it would trigger

a trade war like the one that led to the Great Depression

. Which way will Obama go? Will he risk antagonizing Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and the AFL-CIO, whose support he badly needs to pass his almost $900 billion economic stimulus package? Or will he heed the calls from the European Union, Canada, Brazil and other U.S. trade partners, as well as key Republicans in Congress? Or, to put it more bluntly, will Obama conclude that he has little choice but to govern with the solid support of the Democratic majority in Congress or will he risk sacrificing some Democratic votes in exchange for a small minority of Republicans in hopes of building a bipartisan, centrist, legislative base? The "Buy American" clause, included in the administration's stimulus package that the House passed last week, calls for ensuring that funds for infrastructure projects such as highways and bridges be only used to buy U.S.-made steel, iron and other materials. A Senate version of the bill further demands that the stimulus package's funds for infrastructure projects be used exclu-sively to purchase U.S.-made manufactured goods, such as shovels or cranes. "It's basic common sense," AFL-CIO policy director Thea Lee explained to me. "American taxpayers will spend close to $1 billion to stimulate the U.S. economy and create U.S. jobs. To the largest extent possible, within our international obligations, we should try to use those dollars to buy American products." Supporters of the bill reject claims that

the "Buy American" clause would violate the spirit -- if not the letter -- of U.S. international trade commitments

. "There are waivers and exceptions built into our trade obligations that allow us to give a preference to American goods to a certain level," Lee said. "There is no reason why not to take advantage of provisions that we have negotiated into these trade agreements." Leading U.S. trade partners see it differently. Passage of the "Buy American" clause would lead to "a rush of protectionist actions" that could "create a downward spiral like the world experienced in the 1930s," Canadian Ambassador Michael Wilson said in a letter to congressional leaders earlier this week. Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva told reporters that "protectionism at this moment will aggravate the crisis." Trade experts say that Brazil would be among the most hurt by the "Buy American" clause because it exports steel to the United States and -- unlike Canada, Mexico, Chile or Peru -- does not have a free trade agreement with Washington that would exempt it from many of the measure's provisions. Pro-business groups note that U.S. exports fell by nearly 25 percent in December, and that other countries are suffering similar drops in trade. "In that context,

any U.S. moves that are seen as protectionist could really give a moral sanction to governments around the world to raise trade barriers themselves

," says John Murphy, vice president of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Asked by ABC News about his position on the "Buy American" provision, Obama said Tuesday that he wants to avoid measures that would "signal protectionism," adding that there is "a potential source of trade wars that we can't afford at a time when trade is sinking all across the globe." While critics of the "Buy America" clause cheered Obama's words -- it was the president's first indication of where he's leaning since Vice President Joe Biden had made comments that appeared to back the measure last week -- they caution that the White House may back a watered-down version of the bill that could still be perceived by U.S. trade partners as protectionist. My opinion: Your statement was right on the mark, Mr. President!

What's important is not only the letter of the law, but the signal it sends to the rest of the world

. If it gives U.S. trade partners an excuse to pass their own "Buy national" laws, U.S. exports will plummet even more and more U.S. jobs will be lost than this provision would help save. Now, please make sure that "Buy American" doesn't turn into "Bye, America."
These trade conflicts culminate in global nuclear war and nuclear terrorism

Panzner,

Instructor New York Institute of Finance, ‘

8

(Michael J.-, Financial Armageddon: Protecting Your Future from Four Impending Catastrophes, P. 136-138)

Continuing calls for curbs on the flow of finance and trade will inspire the United States and other nations to spew forth protectionist legislation like the notorious Smoot-Hawley bill. Introduced at the start of the Great Depression, it triggered a series of tit-for-tat economic responses, which many commentators believe helped turn a serious economic downturn into a prolonged and devastating global disaster. But if history is any guide, those lessons will have been long forgotten during the next collapse. Eventually, fed by a mood of desperation and growing public anger, restrictions on trade, finance, investment, and immigration will almost certainly intensify. Authorities and ordinary citizens will likely scrutinize the cross-border movement of Americans and outsiders alike, and lawmakers may even call for a general crackdown on nonessential travel. Meanwhile, many nations will make transporting or sending funds to other countries exceedingly difficult. As desperate officials try to limit the fallout from decades of ill-conceived, corrupt, and reckless policies, they will introduce controls on foreign exchange. Foreign individuals and companies seeking to acquire certain American infrastructure assets, or trying to buy property and other assets on the cheap thanks to a rapidly depreciating dollar, will be stymied by limits on investment by non-citizens. Those efforts will cause spasms to ripple across economies and markets, disrupting global payment, settlement, and clearing mechanisms. All of this will, of course, continue to undermine business confidence and consumer spending. In a world of lockouts and lockdowns, any link that transmits systemic financial pressures across markets through arbitrage or portfolio-based risk management, or that allows diseases to be easily spread from one country to the next by tourists and wildlife, or that otherwise facilitates unwelcome exchanges of any kind will be viewed with suspicion and dealt with accordingly. The rise in isolationism and protectionism will bring about ever more heated arguments and dangerous confrontations over shared sources of oil, gas, and other key commodities as well as factors of production that must, out of necessity, be acquired from less-than-friendly nations. Whether involving raw materials used in strategic industries or basic necessities such as food, water, and energy, efforts to secure adequate supplies will take increasing precedence in a world where demand seems constantly out of kilter with supply. Disputes over the misuse, overuse, and pollution of the environment and natural resources will become more commonplace. Around the world, such tensions will give rise to full-scale military encounters, often with minimal provocation. In some instances, economic conditions will serve as a convenient pretext for conflicts that stem from cultural and religious differences. Alternatively, nations may look to divert attention away from domestic problems by channeling frustration and populist sentiment toward other countries and cultures. Enabled by cheap technology and the waning threat of American retribution, terrorist groups will likely boost the frequency and scale of their horrifying attacks, bringing the threat of random violence to a whole new level. Turbulent conditions will encourage aggressive saber rattling and interdictions by rogue nations running amok. Age-old clashes will also take on a new, more heated sense of urgency. China will likely assume an increasingly belligerent posture toward Taiwan, while Iran may embark on overt colonization of its neighbors in the Mideast. Israel, for its part, may look to draw a dwindling list of allies from around the world into a growing number of conflicts. Some observers, like John Mearsheimer, a political scientist at the University of Chicago, have even speculated that an “intense confrontation” between the United States and China is “inevitable” at some point. More than a few disputes will turn out to be almost wholly ideological. Growing cultural and religious differences will be transformed from

wars of words to battles soaked in blood

. Long-simmering resentments could also degenerate quickly, spurring the basest of human instincts and triggering genocidal acts. Terrorists employing biological or nuclear weapons will vie with conventional forces using jets, cruise missiles, and bunker-busting bombs to cause widespread destruction. Many will interpret stepped-up conflicts between Muslims and Western societies as the beginnings of a new world war.
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