.RU

Chapter 1: Before History

Chapter 1: Before History

Australopithecus (ah-strah-loh-PITH-uh-kuhs)

"Southern ape," oldest known ancestor of humans; it lived from around four million down to around one million years ago, and it could walk on hind legs, freeing up hands for use of simple tools.

Catal Huyuk

Important Neolithic settlement in Anatolia (7250--6150 B.C.E.).

Chinook

Permanent Paleolithic settlement in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.

Cro-Magnon (CROW MAG-nuhn)

Homo sapiens sapiens, who appeared forty thousand years ago during the Paleolithic age and were the first human beings of the modern type.

Hominids (HAWM-ih-nihds)

A creature belonging to the family Hominidae, which includes human and humanlike species.

Homo erectus (HOH-MOH ee-REHK-ruhs)

"Upright-walking human," which existed from 1.5 million to two hundred thousand years ago; Homo erectus used cleavers and hand axes and learned how to control fire.

Homo sapiens (HOH-MOH SAY-pee-uhns)

"Consciously thinking human," which first appeared around two hundred fifty thousand years ago and used sophisticated tools.

Homo sapiens sapiens (HOH-MOH SAY-pee-uhns SAY-pee-uhns)

First human being of the modern type, which appeared roughly one hundred thousand years ago; Cro-Magnon falls into this category.

Jericho

Earliest known Neolithic village.

Jomon

Paleolithic settlement located in central Japan.

Natufians

Permanent Paleolithic settlement in the eastern Mediterranean.

Neanderthal (nee-ANN-duhr-tawl)

Early humans (100,000 to 35,000 years ago) who were prevalent during the Paleolithic period.

Paleolithic

Old Stone Age, a long period of human development before the development of agriculture.

Prehistory

The period before the invention of writing.

Venus figurines

Small Paleolithic statues of women with exaggerated sexual features.


Chapter 2: Early Societies in Southwest Asia

Ancestor Worship

Belief that dead ancestors can influence one's fortunes in life. Those who practice often conduct rituals and ceremonies to the memory or remains of their ancestors.

Aryans (AIR-ee-anns)

European tribes who settled in India after 1500 B.C.E.; their union with indigenous Dravidians formed the basis of Hinduism.

Assyrians (uh-SEAR-ee-uhns)

Southwest Asian people who built an empire that reached its height during the eighth and seventh centuries B.C.E.; it was known for a powerful army and a well-structured state.

Babylon

Mesopotamian empire with a centralized bureaucracy and Law Code centered around its capital, Babylon.

Bronze

Material made from copper and tin used for weapons and agricultural tools.

City-state

Urban areas that controlled surrounding agricultural regions and that were often loosely connected in a broader political structure with other city-states.

Cuneiform

Written language of the Sumerians, probably the first written script in the world.

Gilgamesh

Legendary king of the Mesopotamian city-state of Uruk (ca. 3000 B.C.E.), subject of the Epic of Gilgamesh, world's oldest complete epic literary masterpiece.

Hammurabi's Code (hahm-uh-RAH-beez cohd)

Sophisticated law code associated with the Babylonian king Hammurabi (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.).

Hanging Gardens

Gardens at the palace of the New Babylonian empire (600-550 B.C.E.) that showed off its great wealth and luxury.

Hittites

Group that settles in central Anatolia around 2000 B.C.E., establishes powerful kingdoms, conquers the Babylonian empire in 1595 B.C.E., and dissolves about 1200 B.C.E. Technological feats include iron metallurgy and light horse-drawn chariots.

Indo-Europeans

Series of tribes from southern Russia who, over a period of millennia, embarked on a series of migrations from India through western Europe; their greatest legacy was the broad distribution of Indo-European languages throughout Eurasia.

Iron

Material used for weapons and tools that became cheap and more widely available around 1000 B.C.E.

Lex talionis (lehks tah-lee-oh-nihs)

"Law of retaliation," laws in which offenders suffered punishments similar to their crimes; the most famous example is Hammurabi's Laws.

Mesopotamia

Term meaning "between the rivers," in this case the Tigris and Euphrates; Sumer and Akkad are two of the earliest societies.

Monotheism (MAW-noh-thee-iz'm)

Belief in only one god, a rare concept in the ancient world.

Patriarchy (PAY-tree-ahrky)

System of social organization in which males dominate the family and where public institutions, descent, and succession are traced through the male line.

Phoenicians

A maritime civilization of the Mediterranean that developed extensive trade and communication networks as well as an early alphabetical script (1500 B.C.E).

Sumerians (soo-MEHR-ee-uhns)

Earliest Mesopotamian society.

Ten Commandments

Moral and ethical standards for followers of Moses.

Torah

Compilation of teachings that guide Judaism.

Urdu (OOR-doo)

A language that is predominant in Pakistan.

Yahweh (YAH-way)

God of the monotheistic religion of Judaism that influenced later Christianity and Islam.

Ziggurats

Mesopotamian temples.


Chapter 3: Early African Societies and Bantu Migrations

Ahmosis (AH-moh-sis)

Egyptian pharaoh (c. 1500 B.C.E.), founder of the New Kingdom.

Amon-Re (AH-muhn RAY)

Egyptian god, combination of the sun god Re and the air god Amon.

Ancestor Worship

Belief that dead ancestors can influence one's fortunes in life. Those who practice often conduct rituals and ceremonies to the memory or remains of their ancestors.

Aten

Monotheistic god of Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaton (r. 1353-1335 B.C.E.) and arguably the world's first example of monotheism.

Bantu (BAN-too)

African peoples who originally lived in the area of present-day Nigeria; around 2000 B.C.E. they began a centuries-long migration that took them to most of sub-Saharan Africa; the Bantu were very influential, especially linguistically.

Bronze

Material made from copper and tin used for weapons and agricultural tools.

Cult of Osiris

Osiris becomes associated with the Nile, crops, mortality, and immortality after his wife, Isis, gathers his fallen body and allows the gods to restore him to life in the underworld.

Hieroglyphics (heye-ruh-GLIPH-iks)

Ancient Egyptian written language.

Hyksos (HICK-sohs)

Invaders who seized the Nile delta and helped bring an end to the Egyptian Middle Kingdom.

Iron

Material used for weapons and tools that became cheap and more widely available around 1000 B.C.E.

Kush

Nubian African kingdom that conquered and controlled Egypt from 750 to 664 B.C.E.

Nubia (NOO-bee-uh)

Area south of Egypt; the kingdom of Kush in Nubia invaded and dominated Egypt from 750 to 664 B.C.E.

Osiris

Ancient Egyptian god that represented the forces of nature.

Patriarchy (PAY-tree-ahrky)

System of social organization in which males dominate the family and where public institutions, descent, and succession are traced through the male line.

Pharaohs (FARE-ohs)

Egyptian kings considered to be gods on earth.


Chapter 4: Early Societies in South Asia

Aryans (AIR-ee-anns)

European tribes who settled in India after 1500 B.C.E.; their union with indigenous Dravidians formed the basis of Hinduism.

Brahmins (BRAH-minz)

Hindu caste of priests.

Dravidians

Peoples who produced the brilliant Harappan society in India, 3000-1500 B.C.E.

Harappan (hah-RAP-puhn)

Early brilliant Indian society centered around Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.

Indra

Early Indian god associated with the Aryans; Indra was the king of the gods and was associated with warfare and thunderbolts.

Jati

Indian word for a Hindu subcaste.

Karma (KAHR-mah)

Hindu concept that the sum of good and bad in a person's life will determine his or her status in the next life.

Kshatriyas (KSHAHT-ree-uhs)

Hindu caste of warriors and aristocrats.

Lawbook of Manu

A moral code prepared in the first century B.C.E. in India dictating the role of women in Indian society.

Moksha

Hindu concept of the salvation of the soul.

Neolithic

New Stone Age (10,000-4000 B.C.E.), which was marked by the discovery and mastery of agriculture.

Prakit

Daily-use language of the early Aryans.

Samsara (sahm-SAH-ruh)

Hindu term for the concept of transmigration, that is, the soul passing into a new incarnation.

Sanskrit

Sacred language of the early Aryans

Sati (suh-TEE)

Also known as suttee, Indian practice of a widow throwing herself on the funeral pyre of her husband.

Shudras (SHOO-druhs)

Hindu caste of landless peasants and serfs.

Upanishads (oo-PAHN-ee-shahds)

Indian reflections and dialogues (800-400 B.C.E.) that reflected basic Hindu concepts.

Vaishyas

Hindu caste of cultivators, artisans, and merchants.

Varna (VAHR-nuh)

Hindu word for caste.

Varuna (vuh-ROO-nuh)

Aryan god who watched over the behavior of mortals and preserved the cosmic order.

Vedas (VAY-duhs)

"Wisdom," early collections of prayers and hymns that provide information about the Indo-European Aryans who migrated into India around 1500 B.C.E.; Rig Veda is most important collection.
2010-07-19 18:44 Читать похожую статью
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • © Помощь студентам
    Образовательные документы для студентов.