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Ministry of nature protection of turkmenistan - старонка 7





Target 2.2



Status of threatened species improved



  1. National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?

  1. No




  1. Yes, the same as the global target




  1. Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established

x

Please provide details below.

National targets

Achieve integration in planning activities on biodiversity conservation on all levels of government programmes by 2005;

Increase of investments for 30% to support scientific potential of institutions addressing issues of biodiversity, by the end of 2010;

Issues of prevention species survival crisis in BSAP are closely related to improvement of quality of works fulfilled by territorial nature protection services (А.6.4.). Investment proposals on technical support of nature protection subdivisions of Balkan and Ahal provinces are included in NEAP, aimed at improving status of 7 threatened vertebrate species.

The global target is incorporated in the BSAP strategic component А. “In-situ conservation”.

Main targets of the programme activities



А.6. Conservation of rare and threatened species;

  1. National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been
    established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work



Yes



No



Details



  1. Agricultural




Х

National target has not been established

  1. Inland water

Х




А.6.1. Develop conservation activities for one of the “key” species as a form of conservation of major ecosystems.

  1. Marine and coastal




Х

National target has not been established

  1. Dry and subhumid land

Х




А.6.3. Undertake background studies, and where practical continues existing and develop new reintroduction projects for rare and locally extinct species (kulan, Asiatic cheetah).

А.6.4. Provide technical support to nature protection services of Badkhyz reserve.

  1. Forest




Х

National target has not been established

  1. Mountain

Х




А.6.4. To provide technical support to nature protection services of Kopetdag reserve.

А.6.6. Improve logistical support to bio-technical activities to maintain snake populations on the edges of the protected snake refuge (Kopetdag reserve).

  1. Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and
    strategies?

  1. No




  1. Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan

x

  1. Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes




Please provide details below.

Biodiversity target is included in NEAP and BSAP of Turkmenistan. The Red Data Book (1999) is a basic document for restoration of the number of threatened plant and animal species.

Regional scientific-research project “Correlation of Risk of Biodiversity Threat in Central Asia” (INTAS, 2001-2003) was implemented to improve assessment methodology in Turkmenistan. Categories of risk of species threat on the regional level were identified. The issues of conservation of large Amu-Dar shovelnose sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus kaufmanni) and small large Amu-Dar shovelnose sturgeon (P. hermanni), as threatened species (А.6.2.), were considered in the framework of the project “Research on biology and conservation of threatened sturgeon of Pseudoscaphirhynchus species in Central Asia (CRDF, 2004-2005). Both species are listed in the IUCN Red List (2000) and the Red Data Book of Turkmenistan (1999).

Activities on conservation of threatened species in Turkmenistan are in progress. First outlines appear on activities for improvement of status of the threatened species listed in the IUCN Red List (2000) - kulan (Equus hemionus ssp. onager) and oxus cobra (Naia naja ssp. oxiana) populations - and species reducing in number – gyurza (Makrovipera lebetina). During last years necessary prerequisites were created in the country to transfer these species to the category of restored taxa.

In 1999 kulan population in Badkhyz reserve was visually estimated in the amount of 200-300 animals (in 90s of the last century there were 5000 kulans). Due to stable efforts of the Ministry of Nature Protection of Turkmenistan and international support of donors (Munich Zoology Society, Sill-Dur Foundation, Vienna Zoo, USA Trust WWF) and implementation of the project “Kulan Conservation in Turkmenistan” (2001-2003; WWF) this threatened population was saved. Strict protection enabled to increase the number of animals to 900 heads by the end of 2004. Donor funds were allocated for procurement of powerful pumps to restore the work of artificial ponds and for technical support to the territorial nature protection services of Badkhyz and Kopetdag reserves (А.6.4.).

Common efforts brought to concentration of kulans in groups; many young kulans were born and survived. The Action Plan on stabilization number of Badkhyz kulan population in the region was developed. If the number of kulans is not less than 2000-2500 heads, then their economic use will be possible on the territories adjacent to SPAs. Such number corresponds to capacity of Badkhyz population habitats. Experience showed that exceeding in kulan number causes degradation of reserve ecosystem and conflict with local population.

Excessive consumption of cobra and gyurza poison (1965 - 1990) dramatically altered natural species populations in snake refuge and, in particular, in Kopetdag (А.6.6.). Among the investment projects of NEAP the critical situation on status of gyurza number is specifically focused (VI/ 80). Prohibition of snake export from the country and closure of three serpentines created favourable conditions by the beginning of a new millennium for restoration of their populations within habitats. Without additional state and donor finances the number of cobra and gyurza in accordance with herpetologists’ data has approximately increased twice. Stabilization of situation during 4-5 years will enable to approximate their number to commercial level and to raise their status. Further registrations of snake number (monitoring) will be a basis for developing Action plan on sustainable use of these species.

  1. Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

Recently the research on animal taxa, including their number registration and monitoring has significantly reduced.

  1. Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

Species number is an indicator that confirms its status.

  1. Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

BSAP has not yet been approved by the government;

Lack of financial, human and technical resources

International support is required to increase investments for maintaining scientific capacity of institutions and some specialists (independent experts) that specialize in biodiversity.

  1. Please provide any other relevant information.

Biodiversity conservation targets are not included in sectoral strategies of the country, with the exception of agriculture sector.




  1. Goal 3



    Promote the conservation of genetic diversity



    Target 3.1



    Genetic diversity of crops, livestock, and of harvested species of trees, fish and wildlife and other valuable species conserved, and associated indigenous and local knowledge maintained



    1. National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?

    1. No




    1. Yes, the same as the global target




    1. Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established

    x

    Please provide details below.

    National BSAP targets:

      • Improve conservation of agro-biodiversity and ex-situ nature genetic fund for 30 % , by the end of 2008;

      • Develop and introduce methodology for economic stimulation to increase local population interest in biodiversity conservation, by 2010.




    1. National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been
      established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

    Programme of work



    Yes



    No



    Details



    1. Agricultural

    Х




        G.2 Evaluation of local status of agro-biodiversity.

    G.2.4. Conservation of agro-biodiversity in situ/on farm in Central Asia

    К.1. Develop incentives for biodiversity conservation within sustainable agricultural production.

    К.2. Economic assistance to farming communities living next to protected areas.

    1. Inland water



    Х

    Relevant programmes have not yet been developed

    1. Marine and coastal




    Х

    ------- // -------

    1. Dry and subhumid land




    Х

    ------- // -------

    1. Forest




    Х

    ------- // -------

    1. Mountain




    Х

    ------- // -------

    1. Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and
      strategies?

    1. No




    1. Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan

    X

    1. Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

    x

    Please provide details below.

    Issues of genetic diversity of crops, livestock and related knowledge of local population are one of the key targets of Turkmenistan BSAP (2002).

        The national programmes “Strategy for Socio-Economic Changes in Turkmenistan for the Period till 2010” and “Grain” are also in progress. The “Strategy for Economic, Political and Cultural Development of Turkmenistan for the Period till 2020” programme of President Saparmurat Turkmenbashi was developed as well.

    Joint programme “Conservation, Study and Use of Genetic Resources of Agriculture Crops” is implemented in the framework of the Memorandum on Cooperation between ICARDA and the Ministry of Agriculture of Turkmenistan (September 2003).

    The programme includes the following priority sub-programmes:

    Field crops genetic plasma improvement



    I.1. Improvement of wheat varieties (Triticum L.), barley (Hordeum L.) and legumes (leguminous plants); strengthening national breeding programme and determination of new perspective production lines, seed quick reproduction and their introduction on farm fields.

    I.2. Plant genetic resources



    In 1999 with support of the International Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (IPGRI) and International Center of Agriculture Research in Arid Regions (ICARDA) a Plant Genetic Resources Net (PGR) of Central Asia and Transcaucasia (CATCN-PRG) at the CGIAR Consortium. In the framework of the structure (CATCN-PRG) a PGR sub-division on ICARDA mandatory grain-crops was established at the Turkmen Scientific and Research Institute of Grain-Crops. ICARDA Center provided computer equipment to make up inventory and documentation of all available plant collections and supported training of specialists.

    In 1999 the Ministry of Agriculture jointly with ICARDA and CLIMA, Australia, organized research expedition to south-western Kopetdag. During the expedition 121 variety samples of 44 grain crops (Gramineae), pasture, forage, food crops and legumes (Leguminosae) and their wild relatives were collected from 32 plots.

    In 2002 with support of the Australian Center for International Agriculture Research (ACIAR) the Ministry of Agriculture and Russian Institute of Plant Cultivation after Vavilov (RIPC, Russia) the expedition to south-western Kopetdag was organized. During the expedition 413 variety samples of grain crops (Gramineae), legumes (Leguminosae) and their wild relatives as well as forage and pasture species were collected.

    Livestock-breeding management



    In 2000-2003 research was conducted in the framework of the project “Integrated Forage-Breeding and Livestock-Breeding in Steppes of Central Asia”, with financial support of the International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD). Main outcomes of the project were: introduction of technologies to restore exhausted pastures; improves forage-breeding base through use of drained water; methodologies for flock management and strategies for fattening livestock for market; new forage crops (Atriplex) and forage cactus (Opuntia gen) were imported and tested for introduction in local conditions.

    1. Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

    Genetic diversity of agriculture crops and livestock remains in the competence of relevant institutions of the Ministry of Agriculture of Turkmenistan (Livestock Shareholding Association “Turkmenmallary”, Magtymkuli Research Center of Plant Genetic Resources, Institutes of Farming and Grain-crops, Etrek Research Center of Sub-tropical Cultures, Institute of Cattle-breeding and Veterinary, State Association “Turkmenatlary”); institutions of the Ministry of Nature Protection (8 reserves), Shareholding Society “Gok Gushak”, as well as Ashgabat Zoo and Falcon Society.

    Traditional knowledge on cattle-breeding (chaban), horse-breeding (seyis), gardening, melon-growing and farming is usually maintained and transferred from farther to son or from tutor to student. Production company “Buyan” conducts research of natural bushes (it includes a number of activities: current status, assessment, resources and forecast) of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    The National Gene Bank of Turkmenistan was established in March 2005. It is located in “Ak Bugdai” (White Wheat) Museum of the Grain Crop Research Institute. Currently the Gene Bank is increasing with seed samples. As a result of cooperation with Makhtumkuli research and scientific center of PGR, Russian Institute of Plant Cultivation and Uzbek Research Institute of Plant Cultivation local and aborigine wheat grades and barley (nearly 200 grades) as well as samples of Turkmen wheat and barley from Russia and Uzbekistan were received to increase the number of samples in the gene bank.

    In the framework of the Plant Genetic Resources Net (PGR) of Central Asia and Transcaucasia (CATCN-PRG) with support of the International Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (IPGRI) the project “In situ/On Farm Agrodiversity Conservation in Central Asia” was developed. The goal of the project is to conserve agro-biodiversity (fruit cops and their wild relatives) on farms. The project aims at providing farmers, research institutions and local communities with opportunities to use knowledge, methodologies and strategies for in-situ/on farm conservation of fruit crops and their wild relatives. Conservation of these resources will enable farmers to increase productivity of their farms and improve standards of life in the whole region.

    “Strengthening Public Institutions to Support Plant Genetic Resources Conservation and Use on the Territories of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan” project was being implemented in 2002-2005 by IPGRI jointly with ИФПРИ and System-wide programme of joint activities and property rights (CAPRi). In the framework of this project issues of changes in land use system and rural organizations/communities were studied, which affect plant genetic resources conservation and use in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

    Currently to restore apple-tree collection at Makhtumkuli research and production experimental center for plant genetic resources the IPGRI and Global Fund for Crop Diversification project “Conservation of Significant Apple-tree collection in Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan” is implemented (2005-2007). A number of apple-tree grades have been restored through establishment of nursery gardens and purchase of necessary machinery and horticultural sundry.

    1. Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

    Number of local grades, samples and varieties of conserved crops.

    “Ak Bugdai” Museum, national gene bank with samples;

    Improved wheat, barley and legume crops;

    Grade samples of grain-crops, pasture, forage, food, legume crops and their wild relatives;

    Technologies for restoration exhausted pastures;

    Methodologies for flock management and strategies for fattening livestock for market.

    1. Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

    No national programme on conservation genetic resources of plants/animals;

    Kartahen Protocol on Biosecurity not ratified;

    Lack of highly skilled personnel

    Lack of technical equipment and financing;

    Lack of efficient share of information and unified information network.

    1. Please provide any other relevant information.

    Currently Turkmenistan has actively involved in process of dialogue on genetic diversity conservation.
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