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Julie Ringelheim - старонка 12

Denver University Law Review, vol. 83, 2005, 147-207.

58 A. Morning and D. Sabbagh, 2004, supra note 15, at 37. Interestingly, according to D. J. Sylvester and Sh. Lohr, certain types of personal data are also considered sensitive under American privacy legislations, and benefit accordingly from a higher level of protection than other data. But the information concerned includes mainly financial and medical data, and not racial or ethnic data. (D. J. Sylvester and Sh. Lohr, 2005, supra note 57, at 195).

59 The text of the Proposition is available at http://www.adversity.net/RPI/rpi_mainframe.htm (last visited: February 2007).

60 See R. Amar, “Unequal Protection and the Racial Privacy Initiative”, UCLA Law Review, vol. 52, 2005, 1279-1312.

61 R. Amar, 2005, supra note 60, at 1281.

62 J. A. Goldston, 2001, supra note 14, at 25; L. A. Bygrave, Data Protection Law – Approaching its Rationale, Logic and Limits, The Hague, London, New York, Kluwer, 2002, at 108-109.

63 See W. Seltzer, “Population Statistics, the Holocaust, and the Nuremberg Trials”, Population and Development Review, vol. 24, No. 3, September 1998, 511-552 and W. Seltzer, “On the Use of Population Data Systems to Target Vulnerable Population Subgroups for Human Rights Abuses”, Coyuntura Social, No. 30, 2005.

64 I. Székely, “Counting or Numbering? Comparative Observations and Conclusions Regarding the Availability of Race and Ethnic Data in Some European Countries”, in A. Kriszan, 2001, supra note 8, 267-282, at 279.

65 W. Seltzer, 2005, supra note 63.

66 See J.-L. Rallu, V. Piché and P. Simon, « Démographie et ethnicité : une relation ambiguë », in G. Caselli, J. Vallin et G. Wunsch (eds), Démographie : analyse et synthèse, t. VI Population et société, Paris, éditions de l’Institut national d’études démographiques, 2004, 481-515, at 485; M. Nobles, Shades of Citizenship – Race and the Census in Modern Politics, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 2000.

67 This provision has been interpreted by the European Court of Human Rights as protecting the individual in the context of collection and storage of personal data concerning him or her. See Eur. Ct. H.R. (GC), Rotaru v. Romania, Judgment of 4 May 2000 (Appl. No. 28341/95), § 43.

68 OJ L 281 of 23 November 1995, p. 31.

69 OJ C364, 18 December 2000, p. 1. Article 8 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights provides that: “1. Everyone has the right to the protection of personal data concerning him or her. 2. Such data must be processed fairly for specified purposes and on the basis of the consent of the person concerned or some other legitimate basis laid down by law. Everyone has the right of access to data which has been collected concerning him or her, and the right to have it rectified. 3. Compliance with these rules shall be subject to control by an independent authority.” See J. A. Cannataci and J. P. Mifsud-Bonnici, “Data Protection Comes of Age: The Data Protection Clauses in the European Constitutional Treaty,” Information & Communication Technology Law, vol. 14, No. 1, 2005, 5-15.

70 J. A. Cannataci and J. P. Mifsud-Bonnici, 2005, supra note 69, at 7.

71 Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 30 September 1997.

72 Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 9 September 1991.

73 Directive 95/46/EC, article 2(a).

74 T. Makkonen, 2007, supra note 14, at 53.

75 T. Makkonen, 2007, supra note 14, at 53.

76 T. Makkonen, 2007, supra note 14, at 53.

77 65 BVerfGE 1, decision of 15.12.1983. On the legal and social background to this decision, see P. Schwartz, “The Computer in German and American Constitutional Law: Towards an American Rights of Informational Self-Determination”, American Journal of Comparative Law, vol. 37, 1989, 675-701, at 686-689; and D. H. Flaherty, Protecting Privacy in Surveillance Societies: The Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, France, Canada and the United States, Chapel Hill and London, The University of North Carolina Press, 1989, at 79-83.

78 65 BVerfGE 1, at 42-43, as quoted by P. Schwartz, 1989, supra note 77, at 690.

79 On the notion of informational self-determination, see L. A. Bygrave, 2002, supra note 62, at 63 and 117-118; E. J. Eberle, “The Right to Information Self-Determination”, Utah L. Rev., 2001, No. 4, 965-1016; P. M. Schwartz, “Privacy and Participation: Personal Information and Public Sector Regulation in the United States”, Iowa L. Rev., vol. 80, 1995, 553-618; P. Schwartz, 1989, supra note 77.

80 P. Schwartz, 1989, supra note 77, at 690.

81 P. Schwartz, 1989, supra note 77, at 690.

82 See F. Bignami, 2005, supra note 54, at 818.

83 For an analysis of Directive 95/46/EC, see L. A. Bygrave, 2002, supra note 62, 57-69; F. Bignami, 2005, supra note 54, at 819; S. Simitis, “From the Market to the Polis: The EU Directive on the Protection of Personal Data”, Iowa L. Rev., vol. 80, 1995, 445-469 and G. Pearce and N. Platten, “Achieving Personal Data Protection in the European Union”, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 36, No. 4, December 1998, 529-547.

84 Directive 95/46/EC, article 3(2). A Framework Decision on the protection of personal data processed in the framework of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matter, proposed by the European Commission in October 2005 (COM (2005) 475 of 4 October 2005), is currently under discussion within European institutions.

85 Directive 95/46/EC, article 8; Council of Europe Convention, article 6.

86 Directive 95/46/EC, article 6(1)(a). See also Council of Europe Convention, Article 5(a).

87 T. Makkonen, 2007, supra note 14, at 55.

88 Directive 95/46/EC, article 6(1)(b). See also Council of Europe Convention, Article 5(b).

89 Directive 95/46/EC, article 6(1)(c). See also Council of Europe Convention, Article 5(c).

90 Directive 95/46/EC, article 6(1)(d). See also Council of Europe Convention, Article 5(d).

91 Directive 95/46/EC, article 6(1)(e). See also Council of Europe Convention, Article 5(d).

92 Directive 95/46/EC, articles 10 and 11.

93 Directive 95/46/EC, article 12. See also Council of Europe Convention, article 8(c).

94 Directive 95/46/EC, article 17(1). See also Council of Europe Convention, article 7.

95 Directive 95/46/EC, article 6(b). On rules applicable to the use of personal data for statistical purposes, see also Article 9(3) of the Council of Europe Convention No. 108.

96 Directive 95/46/EC, Preamble, § 29.

97 See T. Makkonen, 2007, supra note 14, at 56. Member states must also comply with the principles spelled out in the Recommendation No. R (97) 18E of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe to the Member States concerning the protection of personal data collected and processed for statistical purposes. In particular, personal data collected and processed for statistical purposes shall be made anonymous as soon as they are no longer necessary in an identifiable form (Principle 3.3.), thus immediately after the end of data collection or of any checking or matching operations which follow the collection, except if identification data remain necessary for statistical purposes and the identification data are separated and conserved separately from other personal data, unless it is manifestly unreasonable or impracticable to do so (Principles 8.1. and 10.1), or if the very nature of statistical processing necessitates the starting of other processing operations before the data have been made anonymous and as long as all the appropriate technical and organizational measures have been taken to ensure the confidentiality of personal data (Principles 8.1 and 15).

98 Directive 95/46/EC and the Council of Europe Convention No. 108 use the phrase “special categories of data” but the terms “sensitive data” are widely used in the literature on personal data protection. The list of “special categories of data” included in Article 8 of the European Union Directive slightly differs from that found in Article 6 of the Council of Europe Convention. Data on trade-union membership is mentioned in the Directive but not in the Council of Europe Convention, while data relating to criminal convictions is cited in the latter but not in the former. It can also be noted that the Council of Europe Convention only refers to “racial origin” while the European Union Directive uses the terms “racial and ethnic origin”.

99 O. De Schutter, Discriminations et marché du travail. Liberté et égalité dans les rapports d’emploi, coll. “Travail et Société”, Bruxelles, Bern, Berlin, Franfurt/M., New York, Oxford, Wien, ed. P.I.E. Peter Lang, 2001, at 33-52.

100 Council of Europe Convention, Article 6.

101 Directive 95/46/EC, article 8 (2) (a).

102 Directive 95/46/EC, article 2(h).

103 Directive 95/46/EC, article 8 (2) (b).

104 Article 8 (2) (e).

105 For a more thorough analysis of the relevance of these exceptions for the issue of data collection in equality policies, see O. De Schutter, 2006, supra note 13, at 28-32. See also T. Makkonen, 2007, supra note 14, at 58-61.

106 O. De Schutter, 2006, supra note 13, at 26-28; T. Makkonen, 2007, supra note 14, at 61.

107 T. Makkonen, 2007, supra note 14, at 61.

108 Paragraph 9, Schedule 3 of the Data Protection Act 1998.

109 Article 18 of the Data Protection Act of 6 July 2000 (Staatsblad 2000, 302) as amended. See the unofficial translation of the Act, available on the website of the Dutch Data Protection Authority (College Bescherming Persoonsgegevens): http://www.dutchdpa.nl/indexen/en_ind_wetten_wbp_wbp.shtml.

110 Data Protection Act, Article 18.

111 T. Makkonen, 2007, supra note 14, at 56-57.

112 T. Makkonen, 2007, supra note 14, at 42.

113 J. Rex, “Race Relations in Sociological Theory”, The Theoretical Problem Stated, London and New York, Routledge, 1970, reprinted in L. Back and J. Solomos (eds), Theories of Race and Racism – A Reader, London and New York, Routledge, 2000, 119-124, at 119.

114 M. Banton, “The Idiom of Race – A Critique of Presentism”, in L. Back and J. Solomos (eds), Theories of Race and Racism – A Reader, London and New York, Routledge, 2000, 51-63, at 51. For a more through study of the successive modes of theorizing race, see M. Banton, Racial Theories, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998 (2d ed.).

115 R. Miles, “A Propos the Idea of ‘Race’ … Again”, reprinted in L. Back and J. Solomos (eds), 2000, supra note 14, 125-143, at 125.

116 R. Miles, “A Propos the Idea of ‘Race’ … Again”, reprinted in L. Back and J. Solomos (eds), 2000, supra note 14, at 137.

117 J. Rex, “Race Relations in Sociological Theory”, reprinted in L. Back and J. Solomos (eds), 2000, supra note 114, at 119. See also B. J. Fields, “Slavery, Race and Ideology in the United States of America”, New Left Review, 1990, 95-118.

118 K. Murji and J. Solomos, “Introduction: Racialization in Theory and Practice”, in K. Murji and J. Solomos (eds), Racialization – Studies in Theory and Practice, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2005, 1-27, at 1.

119 K. Murji and J. Solomos, 2005, supra note 118, at 5. In the same vein, H. Winant proposes the notion of “racial formation processes”. See H. Winant, “The Theoretical Status of the Concept of Race”, reprinted in L. Back and J. Solomos (eds), 2000, supra note 114, 181-190 and H. Winant, “Race and Racism: Towards a Global Future”, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 29, No. 5, 2006, 986-1003, at 987.

120 M. Bulmer and J. Solomos, “Introduction: Re-thinking Ethnic and Racial Studies”, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 21, No. 5, September 1998, 819-837, at 823; H. Winant, 2006, supra note 118, at 987-989; H. Winant, “The Theoretical Status of the Concept of Race”, in L. Back and J. Solomos (eds), 2000, supra note 114, at 184.

121 T. Makkonen, 2007, supra note 14, at 74.

122 H. Wintant observes: “Today the race concept is more problematic than ever before. Racially-based social structures – of inequality and exclusion, and of resistance and autonomy as well – persist, but their legitimacy is questioned far more strongly than it was in the past. And racial identities also seem to be less solid and ineffable than they did in previous ages. While racial identity remain a major component of individuality and group recognition, it partakes of a certain flexibility and fungibility that was formerly rare.” (H. Winant, 2006, supra note 118, at 987).

123 On the different understandings of ethnicity, see J.-L. Rallu, V. Piché and P. Simon, « Démographie et ethnicité : une relation ambiguë », in G. Caselli, J. Vallin et G. Wunsch (eds), Démographie : analyse et synthèse, t. VI Population et société, Paris, éditions de l’Institut national d’études démographiques, 2004, 481-515, at 481-482; A. Bastenier and F. Dassetto, Immigration et espace public – La controverse de l’intégration, Paris, CIEMI-L’Harmattan, 1993, at 139-147; J. L. Comaroff, « Ethnicity, Nationalism, and the Politics of Difference in an Age of Revolution », in E.N. Wilmsen and P. McAllister (eds), 2010-07-19 18:44 Читать похожую статью
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